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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATIQ&   405

i   *£,

*' i. Where the purpose is to embody some idea or plan in e
form, as building a boat, writing a letter, presenting a

2.  Where the purpose is to enjoy some (aesthetic) experience, as
listening to a story, hearing a symphony, appreciating a picture;

3.  Where the purpose is to straighten out some intellectual
difficulty, to solve some problem, as to find out whether or not
dew falls, to ascertain how New York outgrew Philadelphia;

4.  Where the purpose is to obtain some item or degree of skill
or knowledge, as learning to write grade 14 on the Thorndike
Scale,  learning the irregular verbs."*     These types  overlap
more or less, but among them they cover all phases of school
work*

7. INDIVIDUAL METHODS

With the Project Method the problem of bringing the school
into intimate relation with life through personal activities, which
had engaged the attention of educational reformers throughout
the Nineteenth Century, has received as satisfactory a solution
as is possible without any fundamental change in the character
of the school. It is a worthy expression of the practical genius
of the American people. But an increasing number of educators
are dissatisfied with the school as it has evolved to meet the
educational needs of the nation's children, and while accepting
the stimulus of the project as valuable so far as it goes regard it
as lacking in individual appeal. The cause of offence to them in
the schools of to-day is the class system with the necessity it
imposes of teaching large numbers of children the same subjects
by the same methods at the same rate of progress. Rousseau's
solution of that problem was family education, but that is im-
possible with the millions of children who have to be initiated into
the complex life of the modern world. The endeavour of hia
successors in the Twentieth Century is to devise new individual
methods capable when used in school of setting free the creative
energies of the children and making them their own educators.

The pioneer in this endeavour was Dr. Maria Montessori
(4» 1874), an Italian doctor, who began her educational career
with the training of mentally defective children by means of

* The Teachers' College £uttetm> Oct. 12, *9i&*
DD